Sketchley's Statistics MRG - play stats here ABOUT LINKS logo_macross30th (4K) MAIN INDEX
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By AARON SKETCHLEY (aaronsketch@HOTdelete_thisMAIL.com) 2019.09.30 Ver 4.0

Official Setting information is in darkgreen. Extended Universe information is in steelblue.

The Solar System - Inner Planets

0 AU
Sol
  • Vulcanoid Asteroids
    Mercury
  • Mercury-crosser Asteroids
    0.5 AU
    Venus
  • Venus-crosser Asteroids
  • Atira Asteroids
  • Aten Asteroids
    1 AU
    Earth
  • Quasi-Satellites and Co-orbitals
  • Earth Trojans
  • Near-Earth object
  • Earth-crosser Asteroids
  • Apollo Asteroids
  • Amor Asteroids
    1.5 AU
    Mars
  • Mars Trojans
  • Mars-crosser Asteroids


  • Asteroid Belt
  • Outer Solar System
  • Trans-Neptunian & Farthest Regions
  • Sol

  • Size: 109 times bigger than the Earth
  • Type: main-sequence yellow dwarf
  • Distance to Milky Way Core: 27,200 ly
  • Orbital period: 2.25–2.50x108 years
  • Nearest Major Star System: Eden
  • Distance to Earth: 1 AU
  • Travel Time to Earth: 8 min 19 s at light speed
  • A nearly perfect spherical ball of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. It accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.

    Chemically, about three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, whereas the rest is mostly helium, and much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon and iron.

    The Sun formed approximately 4.567 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. The Sun is roughly middle age, and has not changed dramatically for four billion years. It will remain fairly stable for four billion more years.

    The Sun does not have a definite boundary, and in its outer parts its density decreases exponentially with increasing distance from its center. For the purpose of measurement, however, the Sun's radius is considered to be the distance from its center to the edge of the photosphere, the apparent visible surface of the Sun.

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    Vulcanoid Asteroids

  • Type: rocky asteroids
  • Size: 100 m to 6 km
  • Rotation: varies
  • Orbital period: 0.06–0.21 AU.
  • A hypothetical population of asteroids that orbit the Sun in a dynamically stable zone inside the orbit of the planet Mercury. Any vulcanoids that exist must be relatively small, and are probably located in nearly circular orbits near the outer edge of the gravitationally stable zone. They would be almost hot enough to glow red hot.

    It is thought that the vulcanoids would be very rich in elements with a high melting point, such as iron and nickel. They are unlikely to possess a regolith. Vulcanoids are probably similar to Mercury in colour and albedo.

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    Mercury

  • Type: rocky planet
  • Size: 0.055 Earth masses
  • Rotation: 115.88 days
  • Orbital period: 87.969 days at 0.387 AU
  • Atmosphere: none
  • Water: ice at bottom of deep polar craters
    Orbit:
  • No natural satellites
  • minimal Unified Forces presence in subsurface facilities in the Northern polar regions
  • the settlements on Mercury are mainly geared toward science (the study of the Sun and Mercury), communications relay, and monitoring the area closest to the Sun.
  • The smallest and closest planet to the Sun. Because it has almost no atmosphere to retain heat, Mercury's surface experiences the greatest temperature variation of the planets in the Solar System, ranging from -173°C at night to 427°C during the day at some equatorial regions. The poles are constantly below -93°C.

    Mercury's axis has the smallest tilt of any of the Solar System's planets, but it has the largest orbital eccentricity. At aphelion, Mercury is about 1.5 times as far from the Sun as it is at perihelion. Mercury rotates in a way that is unique in the Solar System. It is tidally locked with the Sun in a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, meaning that relative to the fixed stars, it rotates on its axis exactly three times for every two revolutions it makes around the Sun. An observer on Mercury would therefore see only one day every two Mercurian years.

    Mercury's surface is heavily cratered and similar in appearance to the Moon, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years.

    Civilian Gov.:
  • Pop.: tens of thousands
  • Local Gov.: Unified Government
  • Main Leader(s): under investigation

    Military:
  • Starport: under investigation
  • Top military leader: under investigation
  • Ship deployed in emergencies: Mariner (Bolognese Stealth Frigate)
  • Settlements:
  • Columbo (capital), 5,000 residents
  • Mio (2nd largest), less than 2,000
  • Messenger (3rd largest), less than 2,000

    Rural Settlements
  • Small Towns: approx. 1,000 residents spread evenly, with populations that rarely exceed 200 residents. Towns are mostly located in ice-mining areas.
  • Orbit:
  • no permanent facilities

    Due to the high temperature variation, any ships visiting or temporarily assigned to Mercury park in the relatively shielded L2 Lagrangian point.


  • Magnetosphere Bow Shock

    Mercury's magnetic field is approximately a magnetic dipole, and apparently global, on planet Mercury. It is about 1.1% as strong as Earth's, and is strong enough near the bow shock to slow the solar wind, which induces a magnetosphere. (con't on right)
    The magnetic field is tilted, like Earth's. As a result of the north-south asymmetry in the internal magnetic field, the geometry of magnetic field lines is different in Mercury's north and south polar regions. In particular, the magnetic "polar cap" is much larger near the south pole. This geometry implies that the south polar region is much more exposed than in the north to charged particles heated and accelerated by solar wind–magnetosphere interactions. Mercury's magnetic field is responsible for several magnetic "tornadoes"—twisted bundles of magnetic fields connecting the planetary field to interplanetary space—that are some 800 km wide or a third the total radius of the planet. Mercury's magnetic field can be extremely "leaky."

  • Location: approx. 4,635.43 km from Mercury

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    The Mercury crossers proper have aphelia outside Mercury's (0.4667 AU) and perihelia (0.3075 AU) inside Mercury's. As of Jan. 2018, 300 Mercury crossers were known.

    All Mercury grazers have semi-major axes larger than Mercury's, and have perihelia within Mercury's aphelion, but not within its perihelion. As of Feb. 2016, 561 Mercury grazers are known.

    Orbit:
    Squannit
  • Size: approx. 360 m
  • Orbital period: 16 hours at approx. 2.6 km.
  • 66391 Moshup

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 1.532 x1.495 x1.347 km
  • Rotation: 2.7650 hours
  • Orbital period: 188.02 days at 0.64 (0.20 to 1.08) AU.
  • Category: Aten, Mercury-crosser, Venus-crosser, Potentially Hazardous Object
  • A binary asteroid. The shapes of the two bodies and their dynamics are complex. The equatorial regions of Moshup are very close to breakup—raising a particle a meter above the surface would put it into orbit around the object. The gravitational effects between the moon and the asteroid create a gigantic mountain extending laterally around the entire asteroid.

  • orbit brings it closer to the Sun than any other named asteroid
  • 3200 Phaethon

  • Type: F-type asteroid
  • Size: 5.8 km
  • Rotation: 3.604 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.434 years at 1.271 (0.139 to 2.402) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid, Mercury crosser, Venus crosser, Mars crosser

    An Apollo asteroid whose perihelion is only 0.14 AU, less than half of Mercury's perihelial distance. The surface temperature at perihelion could reach around 750°C. It is the parent body of the Geminids meteor shower of mid-December. It is also suspected to be a member of the Pallas family of asteroids.


  • high on the list of possible Near-Earth Asteroid targets for future flybys, landings, mining, or orbit manipulations.
  • Ceres Base
  • Stationary West Point Macro-Training Ship [VF-X2 Mission 9]
  • The command center of the Factory Satellites in the asteroid belt tasked with building the ships for Emigrant Fleets; such as the Environment Ships, and military escort ships.
  • 1998 WT24

  • Type: E-type asteroid
  • Size: 0.410 km
  • Rotation: 3.6970 hours
  • Orbital period: 222 days at 0.7185 (0.4182 to 1.0187) AU
  • Category: Aten, Mercury-grazer, Venus-crosser, Earth-crosser, Potentially Hazardous Object
  • It is classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) of the Aten group, located in Venus's zone of influence, and has frequent close encounters with Mercury, Venus, and Earth. It has an orbit that not only crosses Earth's orbit, but is roughly parallel to it at its furthest. This means that during favourable years it is easy to reach from Earth, sometimes easier than Earth's own Moon.

  • it's estimated that the surface temperature reaches up to 645°C at perihelion, hot enough to melt lead and zinc, and nearly enough to melt aluminium.
  • 2000 BD19

  • Type: V-type asteroid
  • Size: 0.97 km
  • Rotation: 10.570 hours
  • Orbital period: 299.7 days at 0.876 (0.092 to 1.660) AU.
  • Category: Aten, Mercury crosser, Venus crosser, Earth crosser, Mars grazer
  • A near-Earth object with the smallest perihelion of any numbered asteroid. With its high eccentricity, not only does 2000 BD19 get very close to the Sun, but it also travels relatively far away from it. It has the third largest aphelion of any numbered Aten asteroid, and is one of a small group of Aten asteroids that is also a Mars grazer. Its orbital elements indicate that may be an extinct comet. It hasn't been seen displaying cometary activity so far.


  • one of the closest orbiting objects to the Sun.
  • 2004 JG6

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 0.5–1.1 km
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 185 days at 0.64 (0.30 to 0.97) AU.
  • Category: Atira, Mercury-crosser, Venus-crosser, Potentially Hazardous Object

    Due to its eccentric orbit, it crosses the orbits of both Mercury and Venus. It has an Earth minimum orbital intersection distance of 0.0381 AU (14.8 lunar distances.


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    Venus

  • Type: rocky planet
  • Size: 0.815 Earth masses
  • Rotation: -243.025 days
  • Orbital period: 224.701 days at 0.723 (0.718 to 0.728) AU
  • Atmosphere: dense toxic
  • Water: none
    Orbit:
  • 1 quasi-satellite
  • considered to be the bread-basket of the Solar System as the Earth is being restored
  • food is primarily produced in the large group of Environment Ships in orbit.
  • no permanent surface settlement or facilities due to the hostile surface conditions.
  • Venus rotates in the opposite direction (meaning the Sun rises in the west and sets in the east).

    Venus has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting of more than 96% carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of Earth, or roughly the pressure found 900 m underwater on Earth. Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System, with a mean surface temperature of 462°C, even though Mercury is closer to the Sun.

    Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. It may have had water oceans in the past, but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect. The water has probably photodissociated, and the free hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind because of the lack of a planetary magnetic field. Venus's surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and is periodically resurfaced by volcanism.

    The fact that atmospheric temperature and pressure are extremely high, makes water-based life as currently known unlikely on Venus. A few scientists have speculated that thermoacidophilic extremophile microorganisms might exist in the lower-temperature, acidic upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere. The atmospheric pressure and temperature 50 km above the surface are similar to those at Earth's surface. This has led to proposals to use aerostats (lighter-than-air balloons) for initial exploration and ultimately for permanent "floating cities" in the Venusian atmosphere. Among the many engineering challenges are the dangerous amounts of sulfuric acid at these heights.


    After the First Interstellar War, Venus became a primary agriculture center in the Solar System. There are a multitude of agriculture-focused ships in orbit, which take advantage of the planet's closer orbit to the sun. While most of the 'settlements' are in orbit, there are a few floating industrial platforms in the upper atmosphere 'mining' usable gases from the atmosphere. The core settlements are composed of an earlier generation of Emigrant Fleet vessels: New Macross class City Ships, Farm Ships, and Ocean and Resort Ships. These are complimented by a rotating fleet of Environment Ships that are undergoing their multi-year development before being commissioned and assigned to an Island Cluster class Emigrant Fleet.

    The Orbiting Environment Ships The life-cycle of the Environment Ships assigned to Venus sees them produced elsewhere in the Solar System, sent to Domitius (Alpha Centauri Cc) in the Proxima Centauri system on their initial shakedown cruise to receive the ice and mineral rich soil mined from the surface. They then return to an orbit near Mercury, and are heated by the sun until the ice they now carry not only melts, but forms a balmy, ocean-like environment in the basin at the rear of the ship. The ships than travel to Venus, where they are outfitted with the materials needed for farming and raising livestock. Thereafter, the Environment ships are parked in orbit for up to 10 years to establish their biodomes (during which foodstuffs are being produced, harvested, and sent to Earth, etc.), before being assigned to a Super Long Range Emigrant Fleet. About half the residents on each Environment Ship depart with the ship—the other half are transferred to another Environment ship in orbit, as they are biodome development professionals who are effectively permanent residents of Venus. Approximately 35 to 50 Environment Ships are in orbit at any one time. 10 to 20 ships are assigned to departing Emigrant Fleets at a time, and are sporadically replaced with newly produced Environment Ships in the intervening 6 to 12 months between Super Long Range Emigrant Fleet departures.

    Civilian Gov.:
  • Pop.: millions
  • Local Gov.: Unified Government
  • Main Leader(s): under investigation

    Military:
  • Starport: good quality starport
  • Top military leader: under investigation
  • Ship deployed in emergencies: Akatsuki (Battle class attached to Henry Beggs)
  • Settlements:
  • Henry Beggs Satellite City (capital), 500,000.
  • Vega Satellites City (2nd largest), 450,000
  • Vesta Satellites City (3rd largest), 150,000
  • Small Cities: approx. 1.5 million residents spread evenly in the Farm Ships and Ocean and Resort Ships, with populations that rarely exceed 100,000 residents.
  • Towns: approx. 2 million residents spread evenly in the Environment Ships, with populations that rarely exceed 50,000 residents.
  • Orbit:
  • Starbase: all settlements in orbit
  • 2 New Macross class City Ships
  • 3 Ocean and Resort Ships
  • 10 Farm Ships
  • approx. 35–50 Environment Ships at one time
  • Large defensive fleet

  • Magnetosphere Bow Shock

    Venus's magnetic field is much weaker than that of Earth. This magnetic field is induced by an interaction between the ionosphere and the solar wind, rather than by an internal dynamo as in the Earth's core. Venus's small induced magnetosphere provides negligible protection to the atmosphere against cosmic radiation. The weak magnetosphere around Venus means that the solar wind is interacting directly with its outer atmosphere and causing it to erode (a steady loss of low-mass hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions). The erosion has increased the ratio of higher-mass deuterium to lower-mass hydrogen in the atmosphere 100 times compared to the rest of the solar system.

  • no bow shock
  • Venus Orbit

  • Henry Beggs Satellite City: New Macross class City Ship Has facilities to operate as a back-up New Unified Forces and Unified Government command site.
  • Vega Satellite City: New Macross class City Ship
  • Vesta Satellite City: Ocean and Resort Ship
  • Venera 01–Venera 50 Satellites Cities: Environment Ships Note: not all 50 ships are present at one time. When an Environment Ship is assigned to an Emigrant Fleet, the "Venera" name and number are reassigned to a newly produced Environment Ship that arrives at Venus up to 9 months later.

  • Quasi-satellites:
  • exhibits resonant (or near-resonant) behavior with Mercury, Venus and Earth.
  • it has a very elongated body, and is perhaps a contact binary.
  • 2002 VE68

  • Type: X-type asteroid
  • Size: 0.236 km
  • Rotation: 13.5 hours
  • Orbital period: 224.85 days at 0.7237 (0.4268 to 1.0206) AU
  • Category: Aten, Mercury grazer, Venus crosser, Earth crosser

    A temporary quasi-satellite of Venus. It appears to travel around Venus during one Venusian year but it actually orbits the Sun, not Venus. It seems to have been co-orbital with Venus for only the last 7,000 years, and is destined to be ejected from this orbital arrangement about 500 years from now. During this time, its distance to Venus has been and will remain larger than about 0.2 AU.


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    Venus-crosser Asteroids

  • Type: rocky asteroid
  • A Venus-crosser is an asteroid whose orbit crosses that of Venus. There are 2,809 Venus-crosser and 98 outer-grazers known.


  • one of the largest known Earth-Crossing Asteroids.
  • 1990 MU

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 2.8 km
  • Rotation: 14.218 hours
  • Orbital period: 2.06 years at 1.621 (0.555 to 2.687) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid, Venus-crosser, Earth-crosser, Mars-crosser

    The Earth MOID (minimum orbit intersection distance) of 1990 MU has been decreasing (becoming more hazardous) during the 20th century, while the Venus MOID has been increasing.


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    Atira asteroid

  • Type: rocky asteroid
  • Atira asteroids are asteroids whose orbits are entirely confined within Earth's orbit. Atira asteroids are by far the smallest group of near-Earth objects, compared to the Aten, Apollo and Amor asteroids. As of July 2019, there are 20 known Apoheles.

    There is no standard name for the class. The name Apohele was proposed by the discoverers of 1998 DK36, and is the Hawai'ian word for orbit. It was chosen partially because of its similarity to the words aphelion (apoapsis) and helios. Other authors adopted the designation Inner Earth Objects (IEOs). Still others, following the general practice to name a new class of asteroids for the first recognized member of that class, use the designation Atira asteroids.

    Atiras do not cross Earth's orbit and are not immediate impact event threats, but their orbits may be perturbed outward by a close approach to either Mercury or Venus and become Earth-crossing asteroids in the future.

    Orbit:
    Squannit
  • Size: approx. 1 km
  • Rotation: tidally locked
  • Orbital period: 15.5 hours at approx. 6 km.
  • 16369 Atira

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 4.8 km
  • Rotation: 3.3984 hours
  • Orbital period: 233 days at 0.7411 (0.5024 to 0.9798) AU.
  • Category: Aten, Atira, Apohele, Venus-crosser
  • A binary asteroid with two asteroids orbiting their common barycenter. It is one of the largest Near-Earth objects. It is possibly elongated and very angular in shape. It is the namesake and the first numbered body of the Atira asteroids, which have their orbits entirely within that of Earth and are therefore alternatively called Interior-Earth Objects (IEO). As of 2017, there are 36 known members. Atiras are similar to the larger group of Aten asteroids. However, and contrary to Aten asteroids, the aphelion for Atiras is always smaller than Earth's perihelion, which means that they do not approach Earth as close as Atens do in general.


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    A dynamical group of asteroids whose orbits bring them into proximity with Earth. Aten asteroids are defined by having a semi-major axis of less than 1.0 AU. They also have an aphelion greater than 0.983 AU. This defines them as Earth-crossing asteroids, as the orbit of Earth varies between 0.983 and 1.017 AU.

    Aten asteroids account for only about 7.4% of the known near-Earth asteroid population. Many more Apollo-class asteroids are known than Aten-class asteroids, possibly because of the sampling bias due to observation of objects inferior to the Earth's orbit being difficult.

    As of 2019, 1,490 Atens have been discovered, of which 12 are named. Many Atens are classified as potentially hazardous asteroids.

    Orbit:
    5381 Sekhmet 1
  • Size: 300 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: at approx. 1.5 km.
  • 5381 Sekhmet

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 1.42 km
  • Rotation: 2.823 hours
  • Orbital period: 0.92 years at 0.947 (0.666 to 1.228) AU.
  • Category: Aten, Near Earth Object

    Its orbit is sometimes closer to the Sun than the Earth's. The moon is not yet confirmed.

  • namesake of the Aten asteroids.
  • 2062 Aten

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: approx. 900 m
  • Rotation: 40.77 hours
  • Orbital period: 0.95 years at 0.97 (0.790 to 1.143) AU.
  • Category: Aten, Earth crosser

    The asteroid has an Earth minimum orbit intersection distance of 0.1131 AU (corresponding to to 44.1 lunar distances).


  • China plans an exploration fly-by mission to Apophis in 2022, several years prior to the close approach in 2029.
  • Studies have described a number of proposals for deflecting Apophis or similar objects, including gravitational tractor, kinetic impact, and nuclear bomb methods.
  • 99942 Apophis

  • Type: Sq-type asteroid
  • Size: 0.45x0.17 km
  • Rotation: 30.4 hours
  • Orbital period: 0.89 years at 0.92 (0.74 to 1.09) AU.
  • Category: Aten, Near Earth Object, Potentially Object
  • Apophis caused a brief period of concern in December 2004 because initial observations indicated a probability of up to 2.7% that it would hit Earth on April 13, 2029. During the short time when it had been of greatest concern, Apophis set the record for highest rating on the Torino scale, reaching level 4 on December 27, 2004. In 2008, NASA reaffirmed the chance of Apophis impacting Earth in 2036 as being 1 in 45,000. In 2007, The Planetary Society, a California-based space advocacy group, organized a $50,000 competition to design an unmanned space probe that would 'shadow' Apophis for almost a year, taking measurements that would "determine whether it will impact Earth, thus helping governments decide whether to mount a deflection mission to alter its orbit".


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    Earth

  • Type: rocky planet
  • Size: 12,756.2 km
  • Rotation: 23h 56m 4.10s
  • Orbital period: 365.25 days at 1.000 (0.983 to 1.017) AU
    Orbit:
  • 1 moon
  • 5 quasi-satellites
  • Real World Info (as of 2019 summer):
  • >1,800 operational satellites
  • >16,000 space debris
  • The densest planet in the Solar System, and the largest of the four terrestrial planets. Earth formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago, and life appeared on its surface within one billion years. Earth's biosphere then significantly altered the atmospheric and other basic physical conditions, which enabled the proliferation of organisms as well as the formation of the ozone layer, which—together with Earth's magnetic field—blocked harmful solar radiation, and permitted formerly ocean-confined life to move safely to land. The physical properties of the Earth, as well as its geological history and orbit, have allowed life to persist.

    Earth's crust is divided into several rigid segments, or tectonic plates, that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. The planet's interior remains active, with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the magnetic field, and a thick layer of relatively solid mantle.

    About 71% of the surface is covered by salt water oceans, with the remainder consisting of continents and islands which together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. Earth's poles are mostly covered with ice, which is the solid ice of the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice that is the polar ice packs.

    Three-quarters of the Earth's atmosphere's mass is contained within the first 11 km of the planet's surface. This lowest layer is called the troposphere. Energy from the Sun heats this layer, and the surface below, causing expansion of the air. This lower density air then rises, and is replaced by cooler, higher density air. The result is atmospheric circulation that drives the weather and climate through redistribution of heat energy. The primary atmospheric circulation bands consist of the trade winds in the equatorial region below 30° latitude and the westerlies in the mid-latitudes between 30° and 60°. Ocean currents are also important factors in determining climate, particularly the thermohaline circulation that distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions.

    Above the troposphere, the atmosphere is usually divided into the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Beyond these, the exosphere thins out into the magnetosphere, where the Earth's magnetic fields interact with the solar wind. Within the stratosphere is the ozone layer, a component that partially shields the surface from ultraviolet light and thus is important for life on Earth.

    Earth interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon. The Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.4° away from the perpendicular of its orbital plane, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface with a period of one tropical year. The Moon's gravitational interaction with Earth stimulates ocean tides, stabilizes the axial tilt, and gradually slows the planet's rotation.

    Civilian Gov.:
  • Pop.: under investigation
  • Local Gov.: Unified Government
  • Main Leader(s): under investigation

    Military:
  • Starport: good quality starport
  • Top military leader: under investigation
  • Ship deployed in emergencies: under investigation
    Africa:
  • Victoria Autonomous Region
    • Grand Cannon III: construction begins in Oct. 2004.

    Eurasia:
  • Central Russia Administrative Region
    • St. Petersburg: the Anti-Unification Alliance destroys the city using tactical thermonuclear reaction weaponry in Oct. 2006.
  • Danube Area
    • Bjorn City
  • Japan
    • South Ataria Island 1
    • Unified Government Far East Command Headquarters
  • Kazakh Autonomous Region:
    • location of rioting in Jan. 2005.
  • Kirghiz Autonomous Region:
    • location of rioting in Jan. 2005.
  • Middle East
    • People's Republic of Garalia: outbreak of a dispute in Jul. 2000.
  • North America:
  • Alaska
    • Grand Cannon I: construction begins in May. 2002, with completion on 2010.01.10 (on the same site as Unified Forces Headquarters)
    • Macross City 1: reconstruction begins and is completed in May. 2010. Located east of the former Grand Cannon I site. By far the largest and best city in the Unified Government. Macross city is home to the Macross, and is the capital city of the Unified Government.
    • Macross Lake
    • SDF-1 Macross
    • (Earth) Unified Forces Headquarters: construction for anti-stellar-warfare begins in May. 2002.
  • Ontario Autonomous Region:
    • destroyed by the bursting of Macross's omni-directional barrier on Dec. 6–7, 2009.
  • Located generally near Macross City:
    • Gante City: the city where humans and Zentraadi struggled in, soon after the First Interstellar War.
    • Highlander City: located a few hours from Macross City (by air). This city was thriving just after the First Interstellar War and attrached a lot of show business types.
    • Ionesco City: Kamjin takes Minmay hostage here in Nov. 2011.
    • Onogi City: a major industrial city located not far from Macross City. It is on a coast and is possibly located East of Macross City.
    • South Coast City: a city most likely located on a southern coast line. In 2012, the city left direct Unified Government control to be self-governed.
    • Trad City: located in old America and has a large Zentraadi presence: 50% population is Zentrādi.
  • Oceania:
  • Australian Autonomous Region:
    • Grand Cannon II: construction begins in Mar. 2004. The under-construction Cannon is destroyed in Nov. 2005, during an Anti-Unification Alliance retaliatory attack on the Unified Forces.
  • South Pacific Ocean:
    • Mayan Island1: site of Protoculture phenomenon and a dispute over the discovery of it, which resulted in the secret deployment of the VF-0 and SV-51 by the Unified Forces and Anti Unification Alliance Forces in Sep. 2008 (the events are kept secret for at least five decades.)
  • Guam:
    • New Anderson Base: VFF stationed at the base in 2044.

    South America:
  • Brazilian Autonomous Region:
    • Grand Cannon V : construction begins in 2007.05

    Antarctica:
    Under investigation

    Location unspecificed (may not be on Earth):
    • Eagle Nest Aerial Tactics Centre: Captain Milia Jenius is an instructor here in 2029.
    • New Miramar Base

  • Kármán Line (Earth Orbit)

    It commonly represents the boundary between the Earth's atmosphere and outer space, and lies at an altitude of 100 km above sea level. Around this altitude, the atmosphere becomes too thin to support aeronautical flight. There is an abrupt increase in atmospheric temperature and interaction with solar radiation just below the line, which places the line within the greater thermosphere. Above altitudes of approximately 160 km the sky is completely black.

  • Axia Roader Satellite City: - Rex born here on Sep. 3, 2026.
  • Earth Defense Force: - Isamu Alva Dyson assigned here from Jan. 23, 2037.
  • 20 Factory Satellites: - the first is in orbit from Nov. 2011.
  • Van Allen radiation belts

    A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field. Earth has two such belts and sometimes others may be temporarily created. Most of the particles that form the belts are thought to come from solar wind and other particles by cosmic rays. By trapping the solar wind, the magnetic field deflects those energetic particles and protects the atmosphere from destruction. The belts are located in the inner region of Earth's magnetosphere. The belts trap energetic electrons and protons. The belts endanger satellites, which must have their sensitive components protected with adequate shielding if they spend significant time near that zone.

  • Inner Belt: 1,000–12,000 km from Earth Width: 30,500 km
  • Outer Belt: 13,000–60,000 km from Earth

  • Space Colony Clusters 1 [Bunches 2]

  • Survived the First Interstellar War unscathed. The Colony Clusters are likely in a 2:1 resonance orbit that has a close, low-energy (cheap) approach to the moon.
  • Magnetosphere Bow Shock

    The boundary between the magnetosphere and the solar wind. It is the boundary at which the speed of the stellar wind abruptly drops as a result of its approach to the magnetopausemdash;the boundary between the magnetic field and the solar wind.

  • Location: approx. 90,000 km from Earth
  • Thickness: approx. 17 km

  • Earth-Moon Lagrange Points

    The Lagrangian points are the points near two large bodies in orbit where a smaller object will maintain its position relative to the large orbiting bodies. At other locations, a small object would go into its own orbit around one of the large bodies, but at the Lagrangian points the gravitational forces and so on all match up in a way that cause the small object to maintain a stable, or nearly stable position, relative to the large bodies.

    Kordylewski Clouds

    Large concentrations of dust that exist at the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points of the Earth-Moon system. The Kordylewski clouds are a very faint phenomenon, comparable to the brightness of the gegenschein&mdashi;a faintly bright spot in the night sky, around the antisolar point caused by the backscatter of sunlight by interplanetary dust. The clouds appear somewhat redder than the gegenschein, indicating that they may be made of a different kind of particle.
  • L4 (leading cloud):
    • Earth's Lagrange 4 Space Unit: Suzie Newtlet relocates to the unit in 2049 after ending her test pilot assignment.

  • L5 (trailing cloud):
    • L-5 Lab Station: location of VF-1 space testing and launch point of Project Trapeze. Destroyed early 2010.
    • New Frontier: ship Yards and Space Colony (Note: this could be another name for the Manufacturing Station in Lunar Orbit).
  • Moon

    The Moon is thought to have formed approximately 4.5 billion years ago, not long after the Earth. It is in synchronous rotation with the Earth; always showing the same face, with its near side marked by dark volcanic maria that fill between the bright ancient crustal highlands and prominent impact craters. Although it can appear a very bright white, its surface is actually dark; with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt.
  • Type: rocky satellite
  • Size: 3,474.2 km
  • Rotation: 27.321 days
  • Orbital period: 27.321 days at 384,399 km (0.00257 AU)
    Surface:
  • Sea of Tranquility
    • Apollo Base Colony: construction of the large-scale permanent base begins in Oct. 2000. Construction begins on the SDF-2—a stellar space warship entirely of Earth origin—in Nov. 2003 in a factory beneath the base, using feedback from restoration work on the ASS-1. Super Valkyries based here start patrols of the Solar System in Jun. 2010.

  • North Polar Region
    • Grand Cannon IV: construction begins in Mar. 2006.

  • Location unspecified:
    • Moon Base: Isamu Alva Dyson assigned here Oct. 30, 2036.
    • Moon Riverside City: Lunar surface civilian sector/residential area.
    • North Château Residential Area
    • Test site of the first thermonuclear reaction bomb detonation: shot in Feb. 2004.

    Orbit:
  • under investigation
    • Manufacturing Station: large-scale station and construction site of ARMD Space Combat Carriers and Oberth Space Destroyers from Apr. 2003. Construction begins in May. 2001.

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    A quasi-satellite is an object in a specific type of co-orbital configuration (1:1 orbital resonance) with a planet where the object stays close to that planet over many orbital periods. A quasi-satellite's orbit around the Sun takes exactly the same time as the planet's, but has a different eccentricity (usually greater), as shown in the diagram on the right. When viewed from the perspective of the planet, the quasi-satellite will appear to travel in an oblong retrograde loop around the planet.

    In contrast to true satellites, quasi-satellite orbits lie outside the planet's Hill sphere, and are unstable.

    Other types of orbit in a 1:1 resonance with the planet include horseshoe orbits and tadpole orbits around the Lagrangian points, but objects in these orbits do not stay near the planet's longitude over many revolutions about the star. Objects in horseshoe orbits are known to sometimes periodically transfer to a relatively short-lived quasi-satellite orbit, and are sometimes confused with them.

  • the fourth known Earth quasi-satellite
  • 2014 OL339

  • Type: stony asteroid
  • Size: 170 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.00 years at 0.999 (0.538 to 1.459) AU
  • Category: Aten, Venus Crosser, Earth Crosser

    Gravitational interaction with Earth causes its orbit to change so that its average period is one year (this means it alternates between being an Aten asteroid and being an Apollo asteroid.) It moves in a retrograde kidney-shaped path going from east to west relative to Earth. It became a quasi-satellite at least 775 years ago and will stop being that 165 years. Before and after this episode it passes in and out of other types of co-orbital orbits, such as being a trojan or a "passing object".

  • currently the smallest, closest, and most stable (known) quasi-satellite of Earth.
  • 469219 Kamo'oalewa

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 0.041 km
  • Rotation: 0.467 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.00 years at 1.001 (0.897 to 1.104) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object

    As it orbits the Sun, Kamo'oalewa appears to circle (highly elliptically) around Earth as well. It spends about half of the time closer to the Sun than Earth is and passes ahead of our planet, and about half of the time farther away, causing it to fall behind. Its orbit is also tilted a little, causing it to bob up and then down once each year through Earth's orbital plane. The asteroid's loops around Earth also drift a little ahead or behind from year to year. However, it never wanders farther away than about 100 times the distance of the moon, or closer than about 38 times the distance of the moon.


  • notable for having a low transfer energy from Earth (a low delta-v requirement for rendezvous).
  • (277810) 2006 FV35

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 140–320 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.00 years at 1.00 (0.623 to 1.139) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object
  • Although its orbital period is almost exactly 1 year, the orbit of 2006 FV35 has a high eccentricity, which causes it to cross the paths of both Venus and Mars.

  • the third known Earth quasi-satellite.
  • 2013 LX28

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 130–300 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.00 years at 1.001 (0.548 to 1.454) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Venus Crosser, Earth Crosser
  • Classified as near-Earth object. It has relatively high eccentricity and high orbital inclination. It follows a kidney-shaped retrograde orbit around the Earth.


  • a potentially hazardous asteroid.
  • will be a quasi-satellite of Earth until around 2,600.
  • (164207) 2004 GU9

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 160–360 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.00 years at 1.00 (0.864 to 1.137) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object


  • A co-orbital is an object, such as asteroids, orbiting at the same—or very similar—distance from the sun (they are in a 1:1 mean-motion resonance).

    There are several classes of co-orbital objects, depending on their point of libration. The most common class is the trojan, which librates around one of the two stable Lagrangian points (Trojan points), L4 and L5, 60° ahead of and behind the Earth, respectively. Another class is the horseshoe orbit, in which objects librate around 180° from the Earth. Objects librating around 0° are called quasi-satellites.

    3753 Cruithne

  • Type: Q-type asteroid
  • Size: approx. 5 km
  • Rotation: 27.309 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.00 years at 0.997 (0.484 to 1.511) AU
  • Category: Aten, Near-Earth Object, Venus-crosser, Mars-crosser

    An asteroid that, relative to Earth, orbits the Sun in a bean-shaped orbit that effectively describes a horseshoe, and that can change into a quasi-satellite orbit. Cruithne does not orbit Earth and at times it is on the other side of the Sun. Its orbit takes it inside the orbit of Mercury and outside the orbit of Mars. Cruithne orbits the Sun in about 1 year, but it takes 770 years for the series to complete a horseshoe-shaped movement around the Earth. Its closest approach to Earth is 0.080 AU, approximately 30 lunar distances. It has probably been synchronized with Earth's orbit for a long time. There is no danger of a collision with Earth for millions of years, if ever. Its orbital path and Earth's do not cross.

  • because its orbit is very similar to the Earth's, the asteroid is relatively easily reachable by space probes.
  • 2002 AA29

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 20—100 m
  • Rotation: 0.55 hours
  • Orbital period: 0.99 years at 0.992 (0.979 to 1.00) AU
  • Category: Aten, Earth crosser

    It revolves about the Sun on an almost circular orbit very similar to that of the Earth. This lies for the most part inside the Earth's orbit, which it crosses near the asteroid's aphelion. It is locked into a 1:1 resonance with the Earth. It follows a so-called horseshoe orbit along the path of the Earth. The very low orbital eccentricity of 2002 AA29 is also an indication that it must always have been on a near-Earth orbit. Its orbit is slightly tilted compared with that of Earth—if it were not tilted at all, the orbits would lie right on top of each other. The asteroid rotates so quickly that the centrifugal force on its surface exceeds its gravitational pull. It is therefore under tension and must be made of a single relatively strong block of rock, or of pieces baked together. However, its tensile strength is probably considerably lower than terrestrial rock and the asteroid also very porous.


  • is estimated to miss Earth by 0.01 AU
  • 2003 YN107

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 10–30 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 0.98 years at 0.988 (0.974 to 1.002) AU
  • Category: Aten, Earth crosser

    A micro-asteroid, classified as a near-Earth object of the Aten group moving in a 1:1 mean-motion resonance with Earth. It is estimated to miss Earth by 0.01 AU. It revolves around the Sun on an Earth-like, almost circular, orbit. From approximately 1997 to 2006, the asteroid remained within 0.1 AU of Earth, and it appeared to slowly orbit Earth. Before 1996, the asteroid had been on a so-called horseshoe orbit around the Sun, along the Earth's orbit. After 2006, it had regained such an orbit.

  • 2010 SO16

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 0.357 km
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.00 years at 1.002 ( 0.927 to 1.078) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near-Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid

    2010 SO16 has a horseshoe orbit that allows it to stably share Earth's orbital neighborhood without colliding with it. Its semi-major axis of its orbit is neither less than nor greater than 1 AU, but oscillates between approximately 0.996 and 1.004 AU, with a period of about 350 years. In its ~350 yr horseshoe cycle, it never approaches Earth more closely than about 0.15 AU, alternately trailing and leading.


  • a temporary horseshoe companion to the Earth.
  • 2015 SO2

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 50–111 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.00 years at 0.998 (0.890 to 1.106 AU
  • Category: Aten, Earth crosser

    It alternates between being an Aten asteroid and being an Apollo asteroid, changing dynamical status approx. every 113 years. As of Nov. 30, 2015, this object is the 14th known Earth co-orbital and the 9th known object following a horseshoe path with respect to our planet. Its orbital evolution characterized by alternating horseshoe and quasi-satellite episodes.


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    An Earth trojan is an asteroid that orbits the Sun in the vicinity of the Earth-Sun Lagrangian points L4 (leading 60°) and L5 (trailing 60°), thus having an orbit similar to Earth's. Trojans do not orbit right at Lagrangian points, but oscillate in tadpole-shaped loops around them.

    The orbits of any Earth trojans could make them less energetically costly to reach than the Moon, even though they will be hundreds of times more distant.

    L4 (leading Lagrangian point)

    2010 TK7

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 150 to 500 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.00 years at 0.999 (0.809 to 1.190) AU
  • Category: Earth trojan

    The first (and only) Earth trojan discovered to date; it precedes Earth in its orbit around the Sun. Its path oscillates about the Sun–Earth L4 Lagrangian point (60° ahead of Earth), shuttling between its closest approach to Earth and its closest approach to the L3 point (18060° from Earth). 2010 TK7 traverses its loop over a period of 395 years. Its loop is so elongated that it sometimes travels nearly to the opposite side of the Sun with respect to Earth. Its movements do not bring it any closer to Earth than 50 times the distance to the Moon.

  • L5 (trailing Lagrangian point)
  • No known objects are currently thought to be L5 trojans of Earth.

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    A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit brings it to proximity with Earth. By convention, a Solar System body is a NEO if its closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) is less than 1.3 AU. If a NEO's orbit crosses the Earth's, and the object is larger than 140 m across, it is considered a potentially hazardous object (PHO). Most known PHOs and NEOs are asteroids, but a small fraction are comets.

    There are over 20,000 known near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), over a hundred short-period near-Earth comets (NECs), and a number of solar-orbiting spacecraft and meteoroids large enough to be tracked in space before striking the Earth.

    NEOs have low surface gravity, and many have Earth-like orbits making them easy targets for spacecraft. They may present interesting scientific opportunities both for direct geochemical and astronomical investigation, and as potentially economical sources of extraterrestrial materials for human exploitation. This makes them an attractive target for exploration.

    101955 Bennu

  • Type: B-type asteroid
  • Size: 245.03 m
  • Rotation: 4.29 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.20 years at 1.126 ( 0.896 to 1.355) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid

    It is a potentially hazardous object that is listed on the Sentry Risk Table with the second-highest cumulative rating on the Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale. It has a cumulative 1-in-2,700 chance of impacting Earth between 2175 and 2199. Bennu's axis of rotation is tilted 176° to its orbit; the direction of rotation about its axis is retrograde with respect to its orbit. There is a well-defined ridge along the equator of Bennu. The presence of this ridge suggests that fine-grained regolith particles have accumulated in this area, possibly because of its low gravity and fast rotation. It's interior structure is most likely a rubble pile structure.

  • On Nov. 8 2011, it passed 0.85 lunar distances from Earth.
  • 2005 YU55

  • Type: C-type asteroid
  • Size: 360±40 m
  • Rotation: 19.3 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.25 years at 1.157 (0.659 to 1.656) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid
  • Shape modeling based on the radar images shows that 2005 YU55's shape is close to spheroidal, and has an equator-aligned ridge. A 150–200-meter-long, ~20-meter-high rise forms a portion of the ridge-line, and the number of boulders on the surface is comparable to that seen on the asteroid 25143 Itokawa.


  • Asclepius makes close orbital passes with Earth.
  • 4581 Asclepius

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 300 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.03 years at 1.022 (0.657 to 1.387) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid

    It passed by Earth on Mar. 22 1989, at a distance of 0.00457 AU. Although this exceeds the Moon's orbital radius, the close pass received attention at that time. On Mar. 24 2051, the asteroid will pass 0.0123 AU from the Earth. It will be the eighth pass of less than 30 Gm in this century. The uncertainty region of the asteroid will cause it to mostly likely pass from 0.02 AU to 0.17 AU from the Earth in 2135.

  • 162173 Ryugu

  • Type: Cg-type asteroid
  • Size: 0.865 km
  • Rotation: 7.627 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.30 years at 1.189 (0.963 to 1.415) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid

    It has a minimum orbital intersection distance with Earth of 95,400 km (0.23 lunar distances). Ryugu has a retrograde rotation. It is a rubble pile with about 50% of its volume being empty space.


  • It is the best candidate for the source of the Sylacauga meteorite, the first meteorite authenticated to have struck a human.
  • 1685 Toro

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 3.810 km
  • Rotation: 10.185 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.60 years at 1.367 (0.771 to 1.963) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Mars-crosser

    The asteroid's orbit also shows a 5:8 resonance with Earth, and in a near 5:13 resonance with Venus. The current resonance with Earth will last for only a few thousand years. Toro's Earth minimum orbit intersection distance of 0.0506 AU.

  • 1950 DA

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 1.39 km x 1.46 km x 1.07 km
  • Rotation: 2.12 hours
  • Orbital period: 2.21 years at 1.698 (0.835 to 2.561) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid, Mars-crosser

    It once had the highest known probability of impacting Earth. As of 2018, it is listed on the Sentry Risk Table with the highest cumulative Palermo rating.


  • 1998 KY26

  • Type: X-type asteroid
  • Size: 30 m
  • Rotation: 10.7 minutes
  • Orbital period: 1.37 years at 1.232 (0.984 to 1.481) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object

    A nearly spherical asteroid. It is a fast rotator. As a result, it cannot possibly be a rubble pile, as many asteroids are thought to be, and must instead be a monolithic object. It has an Earth minimum orbital intersection distance of 0.0024 AU (0.93 lunar distances). As a result, KY26 is one of the most easily accessible objects in the Solar System, and its orbit frequently brings it on a path very similar to the optimum Earth–Mars transfer orbit. This, coupled with the fact that it is water-rich, makes it an attractive target for further study and a potential source of water for future missions to Mars.


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    An Earth-crosser is a near-Earth asteroid whose orbit crosses that of Earth as observed from the ecliptic pole of Earth's orbit. Those Earth-crossers whose semi-major axes are smaller than Earth's are Aten asteroids; the remaining ones are Apollo asteroids.

    An asteroid with an Earth-crossing orbit is not necessarily in danger of colliding with Earth. The orbit of an Earth-crossing asteroid may not even intersect with that of Earth. This apparent contradiction arises because many asteroids have highly inclined orbits, so although they may have a perihelion less than that of Earth, their paths can never cross. An asteroid for which there is some possibility of a collision with Earth at a future date and which is above a certain size is classified as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA).

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    The Apollo asteroids are a group of near-Earth asteroids. They are Earth-crossing asteroids that have an orbital semi-major axis greater than that of the Earth (1 AU), but perihelion distances less than the Earth's aphelion distance (1.017 AU).

    As of December 2018 the number of known Apollo asteroids is 10,485, of which 1,409 are numbered (asteroids are not numbered until they have been observed at two or more oppositions), and 1,648 are identified as potentially hazardous asteroids.

  • the first asteroid to be modeled by radar imaging.
  • 4769 Castalia

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 1.4 km
  • Rotation: 4.095 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.10 years at 1.063 (0.549 to 1.577) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid, Venus-crosser, Mars-crosser

    It has a peanut shape, suggesting two approximately 800-meter-diameter pieces held together by their weak mutual gravity.

  • 1620 Geographos

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 5.0 x 2.0 x 2.1 km
  • Rotation: 5.222 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.39 years at 1.245 (0.827 to 1.662) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid, Mars-crosser

    It is a highly elongated asteroid. Geographos has a minimum orbital intersection distance with Earth of less than 0.05 AU. The interior of the asteroid probably has a rubble-pile structure.


  • 25143 Itokawa

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 535 m x 294 m x 209 m
  • Rotation: 12.132 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.52 years at 1.324 (0.953 to 1.695) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid, Mars crosser

    The peanut-shaped asteroid has a low density and high porosity. It is considered to be a rubble pile, consisting of numerous boulders of different sizes rather than of a single solid body. Itokawa may be a contact binary formed by two or more smaller asteroids that have gravitated toward each other and stuck together. There are a surprising lack of impact craters, and it has a very rough surface studded with boulders.

  • 1862 Apollo

  • Type: Q-type asteroid
  • Size: 1.5 km
  • Rotation: 3.065 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.78 years at 1.470 ( 0.646 to 2.293) AU
  • Orbit: S/2005 (1862) 1
  • Size: 80 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: at 3 km
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Haardous Asteroid, Venus-crosser, Mars-crosser

    It is the namesake and the first recognized member of the Apollo asteroids. Its minimum orbit intersection distance is 0.0257 AU.


  • Orbit:
    natural satellite
  • Size: unknown
  • Rotation: unknown
  • Orbital period: 27.16 hours at unknown distance
  • 1866 Sisyphus

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 6.86 km
  • Rotation: 2.401 hours
  • Orbital period: 2.61 years at 1.893 (0.873 to 2.913) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Mar-crosser
  • The largest member of the Apollo group, and the largest of the Earth-crossing asteroids—comparable in size to the Chicxulub object, whose impact contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Sisyphus is a suspected binary. It has an Earth minimum orbit intersection distance of 40.4 lunar distances.

  • has a low minimum orbit intersection distance with Earth of 18 lunar distances.
  • 4486 Mithra

    "Alpha"
  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 1.849 km
  • Rotation: 67.5 hours
  • Orbital period: 3.26 years at 2.200 (0.741 to 3.658) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Object

    A suspected contact-binary, which is composed of two distinct lobes in mutual contact, held together by their weak gravitational attraction. They typically show a bifurcated, dumbbell-like shape. It is a relatively slow rotator.


  • Orbit:
    Beta
  • Size: ~6 x 109 kg
  • Rotation: unknown
  • Orbital period: 1.243 days at 1.7 km
    Gamma
  • Size: ~1 x 109 kg
  • Rotation: unknown
  • Orbital period: 8.376 days at 6.1 km
  • 1994 CC

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 0.62 km
  • Rotation: 2.388 hours
  • Orbital period: 2.10 years at 1.637 (0.955 to 2.320) AU
  • Category: Apollo, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid, Earth-crosser
  • It is only the second triple system known in the near-Earth objects population.


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    A group of near-Earth asteroids with a perihelion close to, but greater than, the aphelion of Earth. Most Amors cross the orbit of Mars.

    As of 2019, there are 7,427 known Amor asteroids. 1,153 are numbered, and 75 of them are named.

    Outer Earth-grazer asteroids

    An asteroid that can get closer to the Sun than Earth's aphelion (1.0167 AU), and not closer than Earth's perihelion (0.9833 AU).

    Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    The asteroid's orbit must come within 0.05 AU of Earth's orbit, and the asteroid itself must be sufficiently large/massive to cause significant regional damage if it impacted Earth. Approximately one tenth of PHAs are Amor asteroids.

    433 Eros

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 16.84 km
  • Rotation: 5.270 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.76 years at 1.457 (1.133 to 1.782) AU
  • Category: Amor, Near Earth Object, Mars-crosser

    An elongated peanut-shaped asteroid, and the second-largest near-Earth object. Visited by the NEAR Shoemaker space probe in 1998, it became the first asteroid ever studied from orbit. Eros's density is about the same as the density of Earth's crust. It could contain 20 billion tonnes of aluminum and similar amounts of metals that are rare on Earth, such as gold and platinum.

  • namesake of the Amor asteroids.
  • 1221 Amor

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 0.857 km
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 2.66 years at 1.919 (1.083 to 2.755) AU
  • Category: Amor, Near Earth Object, Mars-crosser

    Amor has an Earth minimum orbital intersection distance of 0.1069 AU (41.6 lunar distances). As of 2018, the asteroid's rotation period, pole and shape remain unknown.


  • 3908 Nyx

  • Type: V-type asteroid
  • Size: 0.5 km
  • Rotation: 4.426 hours
  • Orbital period: 2.68 years at 1.927 (1.042 to 2.811) AU
  • Category: Amor, Mars-crosser

    It may be a fragment of the asteroid 4 Vesta. The asteroid can best be described as spherical but with many protruding lumps.

  • the second Amor asteroid discovered, after 433 Eros.
  • 719 Albert

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 2.36 km
  • Rotation: 5.80 hours
  • Orbital period: 4.29 years at 2.639 (1.196 to 4.083) AU
  • Category: Amor, Near Earth Object, Mars-crosser

    It has a minimum orbital intersection distance with Earth of 0.2030 AU (79.1 lunar distances).


  • 1036 Ganymed

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 39.3 km x 18.9 km
  • Rotation: 10.297 hours
  • Orbital period: 4.35 years at 2.662 (1.242 to 4.083) AU
  • Category: Amor, Mars-crosser

    It's on a highly eccentric orbit. Ganymed is the largest of all near-Earth objects. It has a minimum orbit intersection distance with Earth of 0.3415 AU (133 lunar distances).

  • Orbit:
  • S/2003 (65803) 1 "Didymoon"
  • Size: 0.17 km
  • Rotation: unknown
  • Orbital period: 11.9 hours at a distance of 1.1 km
  • 65803 Didymos

  • Type: Xk-type asteroid
  • Size: 0.78 km
  • Rotation: 2.259 hours
  • Orbital period: 2.11 years at 1.644 (1.013 to 2.276) AU
  • Category: Amor, Near Earth Object, Potentially Hazardous Asteroid, Mars-crosser

    It rotates rapidly, and has a nearly spheroidal shape. Didymos's satellite moves in a mostly circular retrograde orbit. Didymos is the most easily reachable asteroid of its size from Earth.


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    Mars

  • Type: rocky planet
  • Size: 0.533 Earths
  • Rotation: 1.025 days
  • Orbital period: 1.880 years at 1.523 (1.382 to 1.666) AU
  • Atmosphere: thin toxic
  • Water: frozen—in polar ice caps and underground
    Orbit:
  • 2 natural satellites
  • substantial Unified Government and Unified Forces presence
  • most settlements are underground to protect against solar wind, etc.
  • Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. In English, it is often referred to as the 'Red Planet' due to the effect of the iron oxide prevalent on Mars' surface, which gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.

    The days and seasons are likewise comparable to those of Earth, because the rotational period, as well as the tilt of the rotational axis relative to the ecliptic plane are very similar. The lengths of the Martian seasons are about twice those of Earth's. Martian surface temperatures vary from lows of about -143°C at the winter polar caps, to highs of up to 35°C in equatorial summer. The wide range in temperatures is due to the thin atmosphere which cannot store much solar heat, the low atmospheric pressure, and the low thermal inertia of Martian soil. The planet is 1.52 times as far from the Sun as Earth, resulting in just 43% of the amount of sunlight.[163]

    The comparatively large eccentricity of the Martian orbit has a significant effect on seasons. Mars is near perihelion when it is summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the north, and near aphelion when it is winter in the southern hemisphere and summer in the north. As a result, the seasons in the southern hemisphere are more extreme and the seasons in the northern are milder than would otherwise be the case.

    Mars has the largest dust storms in the Solar System, reaching speeds of over 160 km/h. These can vary from a storm over a small area, to gigantic storms that cover the entire planet. They tend to occur when Mars is closest to the Sun, and have been shown to increase the global temperature.

    Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature.

    There are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is less than 1% of the Earth's, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of water. The volume of water ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be sufficient to cover the entire planetary surface to a depth of 11 m. In November 2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of underground ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior.

    Civilian Gov.:
  • Pop.: millions
  • Local Gov.: Unified Government
  • Main Leader(s): under investigation

    Military:
  • Starport: good quality starport
  • Top military leader: under investigation
  • Ship deployed in emergencies: under investigation
  • Settlements:
  • H.G. Wells City (capital), pop. under investigation. - Gamlin Kizaki born here on 2026.01.17.
  • Under investigation (2nd largest), pop. under investigation
  • Under investigation (3rd largest), pop. under investigation

    Rural Settlements
  • Towns: under investigation
  • Villages: under investigation
  • Sera Base: permanent base - construction begins in 2001.07. - Manned by Unified Space Forces personnel from 2003.11 until 2005.08.
  • Orbit:
  • Starbase: under investigation
  • Satellite Cities
  • Mars Defense Force fleet
  • Factory Satellites

  • Magnetosphere and Atmosphere

    Mars lost its magnetosphere 4 billion years ago, possibly because of numerous asteroid strikes, so the solar wind interacts directly with the Martian ionosphere, lowering the atmospheric density by stripping away atoms from the outer layer. The highest atmospheric density on Mars is equal to that found 35 km above Earth's surface. The atmosphere of Mars consists of about 96% carbon dioxide. The atmosphere is quite dusty, containing particulates which give the Martian sky a tawny color when seen from the surface. It may take on a pink hue due to iron oxide particles suspended in it.

  • no bow shock
  • Mars Orbit

  • under investigation

  • Phobos

    Phobos orbits closer to its primary body than any other known planetary moon. It is so close that it orbits Mars much faster than Mars rotates. As a result, from the surface of Mars it appears to rise in the west, move across the sky in 4 hours and 15 minutes or less, and set in the east, twice each Martian day. Surface temperatures range from about -4°C on the sunlit side to -112°C on the shadowed side. Stickney, a large impact crater that takes up a substantial proportion of the moon's surface, is the defining surface feature. Images and models indicate that Phobos may be a rubble pile held together by a thin crust, and that it is being torn apart by tidal interactions. Phobos gets closer to Mars by about 2 meters every one hundred years, and it is predicted that within 30 to 50 million years it will either collide with the planet, or break up into a planetary ring.
  • Type: rocky satellite
  • Size: 27 x 22 x 18 km
  • Rotation: tidally locked (0.318 days)
  • Orbital period: 0.318 days at 9,376 km (2.76 Mars radii)
    Surface:
  • under investigation
    Orbit:
  • under investigation
  • Deimos

    Deimos, like Phobos, has spectra, albedos, and densities similar to those of a C- or D-type asteroid. It is 56% of the size of Phobos. It is cratered, but the surface is noticeably smoother than that of Phobos, caused by the partial filling of craters with regolith. Both Deimos and Phobos have very circular orbits which lie almost exactly in Mars' equatorial plane. Deimos rises in the east and sets in the west. Because Deimos's orbit is relatively close to Mars and has only a very small inclination to Mars's equator, it cannot be seen from Martian latitudes greater than 82.7°. Deimos's orbit is slowly getting larger. It is expected to eventually escape Mars's gravity.
  • Type: rocky satellite
  • Size: 15 x 12.2 x 11 km
  • Rotation: tidally locked (1.263 days)
  • Orbital period: 1.263 days at 23,463.2 km (6.92 Mars radii)
    Surface:
  • under investigation
    Orbit:
  • under investigation

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    The Mars trojans are a group of Trojan objects that share the orbit of the planet Mars around the Sun. They can be found around the two Lagrangian points 60° ahead of and behind Mars. The origin of the Mars trojans is not well understood.

    The spectra of Eureka and two other Mars trojans indicates an olivine-rich composition. Since olivine-rich objects are rare in the asteroid belt, it has been suggested that some of the Mars trojans are captured debris from a large orbit-altering impact on Mars when it encountered a planetary embryo.

    Due to close orbital similarities, most of the smaller members of the L5 group are hypothesized to be fragments of Eureka that were detached after it was spun up by the YORP effect (Eureka's rotational period is 2.69 h). The L4 trojan 1999 UJ7 has a much longer rotational period of ~50 h, apparently due to a chaotic rotation that prevents YORP spinup.

    L4 (leading cloud)

  • It orbits in a very stable orbit, and is large enough that the Yarkovsky effect will not affect its orbit.
  • 1999 UJ7

  • Type: X-type asteroid
  • Size: ~1 km
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.88 years at 1.524 (1.464 to 1.584) AU
  • Category: Mars trojan

    As of September 2011, it is is the only known asteroid to orbit the leading L4 point of Mars. Not only does 1999 UJ7 orbit on the other side of Mars from other similar asteroids, its spectrum is different as well.


  • L5 (trailing cloud)

    Orbit:
    S/2011 (5261) 1
  • Size: 0.46 km
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 0.705 days at 2.1 km.
  • 5261 Eureka

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 1.3 km
  • Rotation: 2.69 hours
  • Orbital period: 1.88 years at 1.523 (1.424 to 1.622) AU
  • Category: Mars trojan

    The first Mars trojan discovered. Its orbit is stable. The asteroid has most likely been in this orbit for much of the history of the Solar System. Due to close orbital similarities, most of the other, smaller, members of the L5 group are hypothesized to be fragments of 5261 Eureka that were detached after it was spun up by the YORP effect.

  • in a highly stable orbit.
  • on average, it trails 60° behind Mars.
  • 1998 VF31

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: sub-kilometre
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.88 years at 1.524 (1.371 to 1.677) AU
  • Category: Mars trojan

    Observations have revealed differences in the spectra with 5261 Eureka, suggesting that they may not be related to each other.


  • 2007 NS2

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 870 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.88 years at 1.523 (1.441 to 1.606) AU
  • Category: Mars trojan

    It is a stable L5 Mars Trojan asteroid with a libration period of 1,310 years. Its short-term orbital evolution are similar to those of 5261 Eureka.

  • 2001 DH47

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 0.562 km
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.88 years at 1.523 (1.470 to 1.576) AU
  • Category: Mars trojan

    It is a stable L5 Mars trojan with a libration period of 1,365 years. Its short-term orbital evolution are similar to those of 5261 Eureka.


  • 2011 SC191

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 600 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.88 years at 1.523 (1.456 to 1.591) AU
  • Category: Mars trojan

    It is a stable L5 Mars trojan with a libration period of 1,300 years. Its short-term orbital evolution are similar to those of 5261 Eureka. Its eccentricity oscillates mainly due to secular resonances with the Earth, and the oscillation in inclination is likely driven by secular resonances with Jupiter.

  • 2011 UN63

  • Type: under investigation
  • Size: 560 m
  • Rotation: under investigation
  • Orbital period: 1.88 years at 1.523 (1.425 to 1.622) AU
  • Category: Mars trojan

    It is a stable L5 Mars trojan asteroid with a libration period of 1,350 years. Its short-term orbital evolution are similar to those of 5261 Eureka or 2011 SC191.


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    A Mars-crossing asteroid (MCA, also Mars-crosser, MC) is an asteroid whose orbit crosses that of Mars. Only 18 MCAs are more than 13 km in diameter (depending on the albedo). The smallest known MCAs are typically less than 100 meters in diameter.

    The orbit of Mars (yellow band; varies between 1.381 and 1.666 AU) displayed with 6 theoretically possible orbits for an asteroid (red line). The orbit of a Mars-crosser is displayed in the bottom row on the right. In generic terms, a Mars-crosser has a smaller perihelion and a larger aphelion compared to Mars.

    Special cases include inner-grazers (top row, in the middle) and outer-grazers (bottom row, in the middle), which do not completely cross the orbital band described by Mars. The other three diagrams describe a co-orbital configuration (top row, on the right) where the asteroid's orbit is contained within the orbital band of Mars, as well as a near-Earth asteroid (top row, on the left) and a main-belt asteroid, which orbits are contained completely either inside or outside the orbit of Mars, respectively.

  • currently makes closer approaches to Mars than it does Earth.
  • 4954 Eric

  • Type: S-type asteroid
  • Size: 10.8 km
  • Rotation: 12.052 hours
  • Orbital period: 2.83 years at 2.001 (1.103 to 2.899) AU
  • Category: Amor II, Mars-crosser

    Eric was discovered in 1990, and is the largest near-Earth asteroid discovered since 3552 Don Quixote in 1983.

  • Orbit:
    S/1997 (3671) 1
  • Size: 300 m
  • Rotation: unknown
  • Orbital period: 27.72 hours at 3.6 km.
  • 3671 Dionysus

  • Type: B-type asteroid
  • Size: 1.5 km
  • Rotation: 2.705 hours
  • Orbital period: 3.26 years at 2.198 (1.008 to 3.389) AU
  • Category: Amor, Potentially Hazardous Object, Mars-crosser

    A small binary Amor asteroid. Its minimum orbit intersection distance with Earth is less than 0.05 AU.


  • Orbit:
    Gamma
  • Size: 430 m
  • Rotation: unknown
  • Orbital period: 16.46 hours at 3.8 km.

  • Beta
  • Size: 770 m
  • Rotation: unknown
  • Orbital period: 6.225 days at 16.6 km.
  • 2001 SN263

    "Alpha"
  • Type: C-type asteroid
  • Size: approx. 2.6 km
  • Rotation: 3.423 hours
  • Orbital period: 2.80 years at 1.986 (1.036 to 2.936) AU
  • Category: Amor, Near Earth Object

    A trinary asteroid, formerly classified as a potentially hazardous asteroid. It has an Earth minimum orbital intersection distance (MOID) of 20.3 lunar distances.


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    REFERENCES
  • Wikipedia and the numerous contributors to it
  • The Macross Compendium's Atlas
  • The UNSDB's Colonies and Bases list by Daniel Henwood

  • © Aaron Sketchley
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